Special Education: Everything You Need to Know

Special Education: Everything You Need to Know

Rewieved By

Mary Divya K Thomas M.A., B.Ed (ID)
Special Educator

Multisensory Teaching Techniques And Activities -Author

Rewieved By

Meghna Elizabeth Zachariah M.Sc., B.Ed (LD)
Special Educator

A child with a learning problem may find it difficult to grasp what most children of their age learn easily. This can put them under pressure and make them face more agonizing social challenges. As parents, this can be a lot demanding on you. We understand it totally. But, did you know that a supportive learning program can help your child accommodate challenges and perform better? To know how, let’s dive a little deeper and explore,

  • What is special education, why is it needed and who needs it?
  • Who is a special educator, how and what they do?

What is Special Education?

It is the design and delivery of teaching and learning strategies for differently abled children or typically developed children with learning difficulties who may or may not be enrolled in regular schools.

In special education,

  • Early intervention is the key.
  • There is NO ‘one-plan fits all’ option. Special Educators design Individual Education Programs (IEP) based on each child’s abilities and needs.
  • Students are helped to accommodate their individual differences, disabilities, special needs and accomplish self-reliance and success.

What is a special kid?

A special child is someone who needs additional help, care and guidance due to his/her medical, emotional or learning problem. Their disability makes life more challenging for them and they need therapy, medicine and/or extra support at school, home and society. Early intervention, care and support can help these kids realize academic, emotional and social potential.

Special Education Program

Special child education focuses on utilizing the right techniques, tools and time-bound care to help the deficient skills bloom optimally in a child.

Special education

  • Provides child-centred learning program
  • Ensures two-way information sharing
  • Gives plenty of practice

At Prayatna, we have a team of focused and qualified professionals who are adept in child psychology. They recommend IEP uniquely tailored to help each child enjoy learning, grow confidence and improve academic performance.

H2:Why special education is needed?

Regular classroom environment can be confusing and too challenging for students with special needs.  Extra support and appropriate help can make learning process less demanding and less difficult.

Special education provides a fulfilling learning experience to them with workable learning strategies and achievable goals. A student who is able to achieve goals feels good and this invariably enhances his/her self-esteem and social skills.

Depending on child’s abilities and skill needs, special education can be imparted in a dedicated special needs centre, special education school, withdrawal class, integrated class or regular class with resource support.

What are the four goals of special education?

Special education aims at improving children’s quality of life by enabling

  • Equality of opportunity
  • Full participation
  • Independent living
  • Economic self-sufficiency

Who is a special educator?

A special educator is someone who works with children having special needs. They are specially trained professionals who help children to strive and progress beyond their limitations to achieve their highest potential. A special educator,

  • Conducts assessment
  • Creates an education program geared to the assessed needs, goals & objectives based on the functional and motivational levels of each student
  • Prepares and utilizes different equipments and materials for the development of required skills in the student
  • Adapts instruction methodologies best suited for the individual student
  • Involves in each student’s academic, social and behavioural development
  • Works individually and along with other professionals of the IEP team
  • Works very closely with parents and caretakers to keep them updated on progress and makes recommendations to promote learning at home
  • Actively involves in communicating and coordinating with all those who are involved in the child’s well-being including parents, teachers, school counsellor, school administrators, clinical psychologist and other health professionals
  • Provides consultation and support services

General difficulties faced by children

  • Memory issues
  • Difficulty in comprehension
  • Poor attention and concentration
  • Being overactive and impulsive
  • Difficulty in organizing work and time management
  • Weak socialization skills
  • Lack of self-confidence and self-esteem
  • Difficulty in self-expression
  • Difficulty in doing daily activities
  • Reading, writing, spelling and mathematical difficulties
  • Difficulties in logical thinking and problem solving
  • Difficulty in understanding and following directions
  • Delay in response
  • Difficulties in speech
  • Sensory issues
  • Perception issues

Who can benefit from Special Education?

  • Children with intellectual disability
  • Children with Autism spectrum disorder
  • Children with behavioural disorders or emotional disturbance
  • Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Children with specific learning disabilities including speech and language disorder
  • Children with hearing impairment, visual impairment or are deaf
  • Slow learners
  • Children with physical disabilities like skeletal dysplasia, cerebral palsy and global developmental delay
  • Children with neurological disorders
  • Children with genetic and chromosomal abnormalities
  • Children with recurrent seizures

What are the 13 most common disabilities in students?

  1. Dyslexia
  2. Dyscalculia
  3. ADHD
  4. Autism
  5. Dysgraphia
  6. Dyspraxia
  7. Visual Impairment
  8. Hearing Impairment
  9. Intellectual Disability
  10. Emotional Disturbance
  11. Developmental Delay
  12. Cerebral Palsy
  13. Down Syndrome

Assessment & IEP process

Assessment & IEP in education settings include 7 steps

  • Screening and identification
  • Diagnosis by RCI certified Clinical Psychologist
  • Discussion with Parents/Caretaker
  • Individual Education Program(IEP) planning and development
  • Remedial teaching using appropriate instruction methodologies & tools
  • Parent Education & Counselling
  • Periodical Review & Evaluation

Not Just Special Education but Enriching Education for Your Special Child at Prayatna

Prayatna’s special education services in Kochi, Kerala, provide a safe and secure learning environment with exclusively crafted one-on-one sessions for children with special needs. Our dynamic interdisciplinary approach coupled with innovative teaching strategies and systematic progress review sessions ensure enriching education for your child.

Prayatna aims at assisting your child learn, grow and thrive independently in diverse environments. If you want to know more, feel free to contact us with chat with us, or call us on 9746303555.


A child may struggle at school for various reasons. If your child’s struggles are in reading, writing, attention, sitting tolerance or copying from the board, etc., it is recommended to consult a qualified special educator for child-specific advice. Their difficulty may be mild or due to an underlying learning, developmental, emotional, or behavioral disorder. A special educator can perform a detailed evaluation and suggest educational interventions depending on the specific needs of the child.

When we identify the difficulty earlier, intervention can be provided earlier. It can create a huge difference in the child’s learning skills, confidence, and self-image.

A child with any of the following conditions is eligible for special education:

  • Specific learning disabilities (Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, etc.)
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Hearing Impaired
  • Visually Impaired
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Cerebral Palsy


When a child is not able to keep pace with his/her grade level students, or if the child is not able to understand what is taught, and/or is not able to meet the needs due to any kind of issues or disabilities, seek the help of a special educator for further guidance.

A clinical psychologist can evaluate and understand your child’s difficulties through an in-depth assessment. If intervention is imperative for education, the clinical psychologist will recommend special education.  

When educators and parents work together to achieve the goals set for a child, the results are always immense. Often parents think that the difficulty their child exhibits are temporary, and will be resolved when they are in higher classes. It is not the truth. The foundation that children gain in lower classes is essential for building new skills in higher classes. 


If special education is recommended for your child, do not hesitate to seek the help of a special educator/remedial teacher. Special education provides the extra attention your child needs to help build their foundation for an improved learning experience and success.

Seek professional help if your child is struggling in academics. An in-depth evaluation will help understand the reason for your child’s difficulty. Identifying the problem and providing intervention at an early age is vital to help the child develop and reach his/her potential. 

The child will be assessed by a Clinical Psychologist for his/her developmental age, mental age, social age, social adaptive skills, and the corresponding IQ/SQ (Intelligent quotient and Social Quotient).


The evaluation process will include a clinical interview, developmental/functional assessment, clinical observation, and administration of diagnostic tests. Diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorder, if any, will be done by a psychiatrist/neurologist/developmental pediatrician/clinical psychologist. 

In special education, a special educator may perform a grade level assessment to understand your child’s grade level and his/her areas of difficulty. Grade level assessment helps design an Individualized Education Program (IEP) that meets your child’s specific needs. 

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